How is the transmission of electricity?

How is the transmission of electricity?

Electricity is produced in the power plant and connects producers and consumers of electricity through a complex system (including substations, transformers and power lines) called a grid. Most of the local grids are connected to each other for commercial purposes and form larger and more reliable grids and coordinate and plan the electricity supply. At the national level, power grids include hundreds of thousands of kilometers of high voltage power lines and millions of meters of low voltage power lines with distribution transformers that connect thousands of power plants to hundreds of millions of electricity customers across regions.

What is electric current?

Before we get into how electricity is created, let’s start with an electricity lecture. Electricity is a current that moves free electrons from one place to another. However, electrons are tiny atomic particles with a negative charge. If one of these electrons is released from its atom and is forced to move to another place, electricity is produced. Now the outermost electrons, or valence electrons, require the least amount of force to break free from their atom. As the free electrons find new atoms to attach to, they knock out the only existing electron and the process starts over and over again. In this way, the electric current is produced and we can see it in our daily work. Almost everything we deal with throughout the day is powered by energy.

How is the power transmission process done?

Power plants generate electricity and deliver it to customers through transmission and distribution lines. High voltage transmission lines are huge cables suspended between tall metal towers that carry electricity over long distances to meet customer needs. Higher voltage electricity is more efficient and less expensive to transmit electricity over long distances. Low voltage electricity is safer for use in homes and businesses. Transformers increase or decrease the voltage in different sections so that they can deliver the appropriate voltage to homes by traveling a long distance from the power plants..

Power plants receive their generated energy from the established power plant substations and send it to the transmission line cables. Then this energy is sent to distribution networks to reach people’s homes or industrial organizations. The typical voltage levels that flow in the national energy transmission cables are shown as 400 and 230 kV. Less energy transfer is 132, 63 and 66 volts. It is true that the transmission of electrical energy has its complications; But it is considered one of the most important energies in the daily life system of people and human societies. There are various other systems throughout the country that need electrical energy to survive. Therefore, electrical energy must be produced and distributed in a completely stable and reliable manner.

When electricity is produced in different companies, it is transferred to different generators near many cities or industrial centers. Then this energy is divided into smaller components and sent to the doors of houses. This displacement of electric current is called electrical energy.

Transmission of electricity in multiple lines

Typically, the power transmitted from power generation organizations has a very high current, such as 110 kW or more. In most countries, electricity is transmitted by overhead cables to homes or industrial plants. Underground cables are used only if the cities have a very high population. Also, this route is less used because it requires a very high cost for establishment and maintenance. Another disadvantage is that they cause additional radioactivity, which causes great losses to institutions.

Today, the cables that organizations consider for energy transmission are more than 110 kV. Shorter voltages such as 33 and 66 kV are much less widely used and are usually used for long distances. When they want to distribute electricity to houses, they use voltages lower than 33 kV. Voltages greater than 230V are considered for very different tasks.

Airline transmission lines

Aerial power cables are a power transmission line carried by towers or suspended. Because most insulation is supplied through the air, overhead power lines are usually the least expensive method of transmission for large amounts of power. Towers are made of laminated wood, steel (either lattice structures or tubular poles), concrete, aluminum, and sometimes reinforced plastics to support the cables. The bar wire conductors on the line are generally manufactured from aluminum (plain or reinforced with steel or sometimes composite materials). Copper wires are also used in medium voltage distribution and low voltage connections to different areas.

In the past, the invention of strain relief was a critical factor for the use of higher voltages. By the end of the 19th century, the limited electrical strength of telegraph-style pin insulators limited the voltage to over 69,000 volts. Today, overhead lines typically operate at voltages in excess of 765,000 volts between conductors, and in some cases higher voltages are used.

Ground transmission lines

In addition to overhead cables, underground lines are installed in most cities, consisting of one or more conductors. They cover these lines with reassuring insulation so that they are less damaged. Underground cables consist of different parts such as core, conductor, insulation, metal sheath, substrate, armor, service, etc. You can find a variety of these lines in the market. When you are planning to find your ideal underground cable, you should consider the appropriate voltage and the needs you have in mind from that structure. Depending on the geographical area, environmental conditions, required services and cost, you can choose between overhead and underground cables. A proper understanding of the types of transmission lines based on voltage makes the tasks of cable selection, installation, maintenance and repair easier.

HVDC power flow

HVDC is used when the electric current is direct and on very large scales. Also, HVDC direct electric energy transmission is used in long routes or to connect two AC mismatched grid systems. AC transmission usually poses more risks to manufacturers because it requires very high voltages to travel long distances. While DC voltage works differently with it. This energy is also used for long distances; But the only difference is that it brings less economic losses. This transfer of energy flow compensates all its costs based on the energy conversion system from AC to DC due to the reduction of losses and costs related to transmission and maintenance.

AC power can cause other problems as well. For example, if two AC currents in two areas are different from each other, if they collide, they will cause damages. This issue is completely eliminated in HVDC due to the professional structure. In two areas with different currents, AC energy is converted to DC so that it is easier to transfer and the energy can return to its original current, AC.

Electricity production

Electric current generation is a process that is produced from an energy source and consumed in a system. The basic principles of electricity were first discovered by a scientist named Michael Faraday. She was from England who worked on this project in the 1820s to 1830s. The method she invented is still used as an authoritative source. Her theory was that “electricity is produced when the flow of energy goes around a copper wire or cylinder between the poles of a magnet.».

Many companies across the country are engaged in production, how to flow and transfer energy to customers and consumers. Electricity flow is initially generated in power plants by generators. Generators need a mechanical drive such as a turbine or diesel engine to produce the global energy flow. In fact, turbines are placed in windy areas so that wind energy drives them. This process creates a current in the generators and finally produces electricity with the help of the system. The place where generators and related equipment are installed is called a power plant. Power plants produce electricity in two forms: alternating current AC span or direct current DC energy will be generated and then transferred into homes or commercial industries.

There are different power plants throughout the country, each of which has its own flow and structure. These energy sources are as follows:

  • Thermal power plant
  • Nuclear Power plant
  • Coal fueled power plant
  • Coal fueled power plant
  • Natural gas power plant
  • Renewable energy sources
  • hydroelectric power plant
  • solar power station
  • wind power plant
  • Marine energy
  • bio fuel
  • osmotic power

Transmission of electricity to houses

Electricity starts its journey from power plants. Where it comes from fossil fuels or renewable resources from coal and natural gas to hydro and wind power plants. In most cases, these sources for powering turbines come from the forces of gas, steam, wind, water, solar, biomass, geothermal, and even nuclear fission. The electric current produced in power plants is delivered to homes through power lines.